Divination, Lesson 6
Message: Lesson 6, Part 1: Divination
Author: Teacher – Daven Iceni
Date: Jul 11, 2000 17:55
|Okay, having talked energy work to death (for now at least), let’s move on to another huge area of study in the Pagan belief system. That of Divination.
There are, as many of you should be aware, many different types of divination. In fact, there is divination by everything from cards, to study of weather patterns, to pouring molten lead into water, to Crystal scrying, to fire scrying and so forth.
But let’s get the terms first.
Scry, To: To gaze at or into an object (a quartz crystal sphere, pool of water, reflections, a candle flame) at still the Conscious Mind and to contact the Psychic Mind. This allows the scryer to become aware of possible events prior to their actual occurrence, as well as of previous or distant, simultaneous events through other then the normally accepted senses. A form of divination.
Divination: The magical art of discovering the unknown by interpreting random patterns or symbols through the use of tools such as clouds, tarot cards, flames, smoke. Divination contacts the Psychic Mind by tricking or drowsing the Conscious Mind through Ritual and observation or of manipulation of tools. Divination isn’t necessary for those who can easily attain communication with the psychic mind, though they may practice it.
These definitions are from “Wicca – A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner” by Scott Cunningham
To see or predict the future by means of a crystal ball. [Short for descry.] From the American Heritage Dictionary
Certainly the most common form of divination that most people know about are Tarot Cards. While these are the most common, Tarot Cards are far from the only thing out there. In fact, there is one form of divination that the Ancient Druids practiced that is still in practice today.
I am speaking on Astrology. This is the skill of determining what will happen in the future, from interpretation of your natal chart. A natal chart is a map of the positions of the stars and planets at the moment and place of your birth. From that, a good Astrologer can determine what forces are at work in your life, and tell you where a general trend can come out.
This type of divination, however, is not for the unscientific. There is a lot of chart-work, math, and graphing going on before you can get anything on paper that will render itself to interpretation.
Here are a few other types of divination that I snitched from another page, found here
ICHING, an ancient Chinese system of oracular divination
and this list is not complete. There are scientific names for all of these, but be blessed if I can find them. Oh well.
Here we are going to talk about these general types, I can give you some history on each of these (so long as I know it) and we can talk about the most common type of divination that has not been mentioned yet.
First and foremost, I am no expert. I have only used (personally) Tarot cards, some Astrology, some Rune Stones, and dreams. I do not know all there is to know about all of these types of divination. Okay, standard disclaimer out of the way, here we go.
The history of Divination is a long one, starting from the point where primitive man looked up and realized that this day was different from yesterday. So long as there has been time, someone has wondered what would happen tomorrow.
Mostly the divination methods that were in practice until about the Renaissance were what was called OMENS. Omens are nothing more than looking for divine approval or disapproval of a considered or stated course of action.
In other words, I say, “I think I will sleep late today” and then I look around myself for an omen saying that the Gods approve, or an omen saying that they disapprove. It’s as easy as that.
However, this is the easiest type of divination to fake. A cat sneezing just after you say that, may be the Gods approving of your plan, or it may just be a sneeze. A book falling to the floor off your desk may be the Gods disapproving or it may simply be gravity.
However, that is why we have a priest class. If you said that and a Druid was present, the Druid would look around for those omens, not you. And at the cat sneezing, he may say, “No, do not stay abed, clean your house, the Gods have decreed it.” or at the book falling, he might say “It’s a sign from the Gods that you must study more, not laze about in bed.”
See how this can get really lost quick? It can be easy to interpret things that are coincidental for a message from the Gods.
As such, when man began to think for himself, and stopped letting the Priest Class do all his thinking for him, he began looking for more direct means of finding out what tomorrow would bring.
At this point, no one knows what happened. It could be that the omens of the past turned into the Arithmomancy of today, but who knows? That, by the way, is divination using arithmetic as opposed to Numerology, which is divination by numbers.
One thing is known, almost overnight many different types of divination began. Perhaps it was the influence of Pythagoras who gave us Numerology, and the Alchemists who gave us molten metal and oil scrying. Perhaps it was the Gypsies who gave us Tarot Cards and also reading Tea Leaves. But now, there are multiple divination systems.
Okay, this is not a book-learned, factual history. I could be wrong about how it came about, and I have heard multiple histories of all of this, from the Tarot Cards were an Egyptian invention, to “dowsing” came from Atlantis. The point is that no one knows, all we can deal with now is what we do know.
Among what we do know is that in primitive cultures, Omens were an important part of day to day life. That is why an eclipse, either lunar or solar, was seen as such a bad thing. Think about it. Here you are, walking along outside, and it suddenly begins to get dark, as you watch, you see multiple little suns littering the ground, with more and more of the sun vanishing as you watch it. The birds start roosting, and it lacks a little to midday. You know the Sun God (whatever you call Him) is an important part of your life, and here He is, vanishing forever! So you fall on your knees, and start sending up desperate prayers for Him not to be mad with you, and your tribe, and to forgive you for everything you did, and you swear to Him that you will worship and honor Him for all of your life. As slowly as He went away at first, He starts coming back. It gets brighter and brighter, and finally, the day continues.
Don’t you think that this would rock you a little?
If Omens were such a big part of daily life, then Runes were just as big a part as well. There is a big debate as to whether or not the Norse were Rune stone readers, along with their Priest class, and the best evidence we have now is that they were not. There is a thread in Germania that deals with this and the debate was waged in there for a little bit, and I contributed to it for a while. Go check it out.
However, the best evidence we have now also says the Druids were rune readers. How many of you have heard of the Ogham Runes? I have some on my domus door, all around the arch. They are simply notches out of stone that represent letters. If you want to know more, there are several sites that are giving out information about divination by the Ogham runes, and Searles O’Doubhain is giving a course on this very topic and he has a book available for purchase. The link is here.
So, from what we know, there were three types of divination that the Druids practiced, Astrology, Rune casting, and Omens. What about reading entrails of the dead sacrifices? That is a combination of several things, I think. One, omens, two, wishful thinking, and three, looking for certain shapes in those guts and interpreting them in their own world view. That is a bit too subjective to discuss here. (Besides, it may gross you out. LOL)
Later, next post, I shall go a little more into depth with the most current kinds of divination, and tell you some REALLY basic stuff with them.
Until next time.
Oh, and here’s a hyperlink that you may find interesting. Some of the definitions I got from here. Look around.
Message: Growing up a country girl,
Author: is she really back??? – Fleury CuChulainn
Date: Jul 12, 2000 01:01
|I was taught the basics of natural observation… the berries on trees as well as birds habits predicting winter, cows as well as the flight pattern of birds predicting rain, the trees predicting both rain and drought, clouds predicting virtually every weather pattern imaginable, ladybug colonies and the coming summer… it goes on and on. If we look at the subtle changes within nature we can determine a lot.
I read Tarot Cards but not well, I have a crystal ball but never seen anything in it, I’ve seen a few things in fire though…
Daven, I promise I’ll do more research and follow up every link you posted but I wanted to at least let you know that I’m still here, just freakishly busy and haven’t had much time to practice things… I’d forgotten just how intense summer courses at uni are… 🙂
Faithful yet quiet
Message: Of divination…
Author: – Draconis CuChulainn
Date: Jul 13, 2000 19:05
|A friend in Southern Oregon once did a reading for me using left over spaghetti sauce. She mentions that the object that one uses for divination isn’t that important–i.e., it could be tarot, crystal ball, a flame, sauce, tea leave.
They act as focus points for the Physic Mind. Whatever you can use to focus the Mind and “read” what the Mind tells you is a valid divination tool.
Author: Teacher – Daven Iceni
Date: Jul 18, 2000 12:02
|that is true. The medium doesn’t matter. My grandmother could do amazing readings on people she had never met using the medium of their handwriting.
However, the interpretation of the means is what is important. Why does this loop on an “a” mean that this person is introverted, and how does Pluto affect my love life? Why is the “two of pentacles” meaning that I am having trouble with meeting my responsibilities?
That is what this class will give you. A BASIC overview of how and why, along with references to more detailed instructions for the particular crutch of your choice.
And, spaghetti sauce divination? I suppose it could be done. But I don’t know if I want to try it.
Message: My favorite divination experience
Author: Back Again – Ciaran Iceni
Date: Jul 19, 2000 09:44
|occurred in February of 99 when I was in Glastonbury. I had climbed The Tor with a friend who was off doing her own thing. I had brought my set of I Ching coins with me and did a reading sitting in the tower on top of The Tor. I was all prepared for something deep and profound to come thru- come on, I was in Glastonbury, the Holy Isle of Avalon, on the most mystically charged site in a mystically charged place! So I concentrated on the coins, I meditated a bit, I lit some incense, and threw the coins. I got the hexagram called Ch’ien. For those of you not familiar with this divination form, Ch’ien indicates a high and windy place which is charged with power and includes a healthy dose of dragon imagery. Sigh, either the coins are idiotically literal (that’s a good description of the top of The Tor) or they have a very ironic sense of humor. So much for deep spiritual insight.|
|I’ll give a capsule summation here. You have 5 coins, with heads and tails. You concentrate on the question you have, and toss them in the air. how they land and what is showing, heads or tails, in what order, and in what shape determines the answer to your question.
This is a really complex divination technique even though it has been in practice for literally millennia. There is an entire 150 page book that goes along with the coins, telling you the layout and which faces are up and down, and what it means. There is no “Tomorrow, you must go to the temple and pay the sacrifices to the Gods” direct translations, but it’s more like “The rain falls softly upon the fields, blessing them. The Gods smile” fortune cookie type sayings.
Not that I have anything against fortune cookies sayings, because you CAN understand them if you think about it enough, but they can be confusing for someone looking for straight answers. Like most people looking at oracles are trying for. LOL
Soon, I’ll give some of the more powerful omens and oracles that I know of, and what they mean.
Message: spaghetti divination
Author: – Fleury CuChulainn
Date: Jul 19, 2000 13:17
|Ya know, that could be fun… Imagine if we were standing in the middle of a kitchen (a tiled floor would be preferable to carpeting) and we were to grab a handful of sauced-up spaghetti… toss it in the air and watch as it plummets to the ground…
Ohh the things we could see in the pattern of the splatters on the floor, on the cupboards, on the fridge, on your shoes, up your legs, on the cat…
Message: Further exposition on I Ching (Ee Jing)
Author: – Ciaran Iceni
Date: Jul 21, 2000 00:20
|As Daven said, it’s a very old Chinese method of divination which is not for the faint of heart, it is very involved and you really need to understand the Taoist belief system which it it developed out of in order to use the information.
The method is relatively simple- relatively. You need three things with two easily discernable sides- coins work very well. Call one side heads and one side tails, then throw the objects into the air and see how they land. 3 heads indicates a solid line, 3 tails indicates a broken line, 2 heads/1 tail indicates a solid line, 2 tails/1 head indicates a broken line. Throw the coins 6 times and draw the lines indicated by each throw starting from the bottom. Each set of 6 lines is called a hexagram and each hexagram has a name and an image it is supposed to invoke. The hexagrams are made up of two sets of 3 lines called trigrams and each trigram has a name and quality associated with it. 3 solid lines is called Ch’ien and represents Air and Father. 3 brokend lines is K’un and represents Earth and Mother. One solid line over two broken lines is Ken and represents Mountain and Third Son, while two solid lines over one broken line is called Sun and represents Breath and First Daughter. Solid lines are considered to have Yang or masculine energy and broken lines are considered to have Yin or feminine energy. There are more trigrams, but I won’t bore everyone here with them.
An example of a hexagram would be- #17 T’ung Jen or Air over Fire (from the bottom- solid, broken, solid, solid, solid, solid) “Air over Fire suggests a camp or the center of a ceremonial circle, symbolizing a place where like-minded persons could engage in communal activity. Fire warms each member of the group. The center is occupied by one beloved by all.”
Message: Lesson 6 part 2: Omens
Author: Teacher – Daven Iceni
Date: Jul 26, 2000 16:39
|Okay, this will cover just the basics of omens and how they can be interoperated, because there is so much subjective room in here for misunderstanding and misinterpretation.
First and foremost, on interpreting omens, you have to have a good connection to the “undermind” or the Collective Unconscious. IE, you need to be able to feel the messages from the Gods.
Omens can literally be anything you choose to view as a message from the Gods. What makes them different from happenstance is that connection that whispers to you that this is a message. It’s a still voice, I call it intuition, others call it what they will, but usually it is referred to as the voice of God. Some even call it a gut instinct. Jung called it the Collective Unconscious.
From this place, or from this voice, all information that you pull from comes. There is literally nothing that is currently known that is not there. It is here that one will find true interpretations of omens and if this act was just a coincidence or was really a message.
Now, we as practitioners of metaphysics and as Druids will develop a connection to this place, and a stronger set of ears to hear this voice. An omen is for the masses who can’t hear there.
Usually this action comes in the form of something that is odd happening at this time. For instance, a snowflake settling on your hand in the middle of summer. Or it is in the form of animals. A crow calling from a church steeple after you have said something. Or just an action that seems out of place. Like a blue pen in your drawer full of black pens.
Any one of these can be seen as happenstance, but with the feelings resonating down that link, or that gut feeling, one can see if it is just chance or if there is something more there.
I won’t go into interpreting those omens, only to say that in the main part, the symbols represent the act. The snowflake on your palm may mean that the Gods are trying to tell you to get your plants tended to tonight due to a frost coming. Or a pen may mean that you need to write more.
Interpreting them is a tricky business, and one that is really too complex to put down.
I can give you hints thought. Usually animals are representing the Gods of the pantheon that the animal is sacred to.
I will use the Norse pantheon, since I am more conversant with their animal representations than I am with Celtic Deities. For Odin, there is the Horse and the Raven. Both are sacred to him and both are companions to him. Thor is the lightning and the goats. Loki is the flies, Freya is the falcon, and so forth.
So, seeing a raven doing something odd is a sign from Odin that you need to pay attention to. Not just from your patron God or Goddess, but you have to know what animals are sacred to each of the gods in the deity group you are worshiping.
Seeing a raven, for instance, for a Norseman would be a good sign, but that same sign to a Celt is a frightening Omen. Because the raven is sacred to the Morrigan in Celtic mythology, and she is the Goddess of wild war and death.
So they can be different symbols to different peoples. The sign to a Norseman may mean that the God approves of this fight and will lend you his strength and anger (berserker) for the fight, but to the Celt, it may mean that one will die messily in the upcoming battle against the Norse. Same symbol, different spins.
Do you see?
Now, that is not to say that all symbols are sacred to a god or goddess. Not by a long shot. I had a friend who had a very positive omen come to him in the form of a Dragonfly, and he learned a lot from those dragonflies. They taught him many secrets of nature and of their life, but the dragonfly is not sacred to anyone (as far as I know except in China). But he saw the dragonfly over and over and over again in the course of a week, so something was trying to get his attention.
Then we come to odd things like lakes boiling, lightening striking the tree you are next to, the sun turning red, and so on. Non natural phenomenon. We know why some of these things are happening now, but we didn’t know then. In these cases, one must look to your gut instinct to tell what is trying to be said.
In an RP story, of course, one can make these mean anything one wishes to. A boiling lake can be stretched to fit around boiling the enemy in his own blood, but it can also be stretched to fit around the entire tribe is going to die of thirst.
Thought this set of lessons, you will find divination to be the MOST subjective of all the disciplines, so it behooves one to develop a connection to that gut feeling and to use it.
So, for your exercise: I want you to spend a few weeks listening to that gut instinct. You are already meditating, use that time to allow yourself to probe your feelings on any number of subjects.
One thing that I will tell you which is irrevocable is this, the gut feeling will never steer you wrong. It is internal, it is a connection to the infinite, to the divine. It has only your best interests at heart. It cannot lie to you, nor can it lead you astray.
So, start listening to your gut feeling. Ask it questions about what is in your life. And listen to it. Do what it advises, and be prepared for something to happen when you don’t.
Many people have feelings about things and they either listen or they don’t. Start listening to how many times you hear this in your month, “I KNEW I should have brought (or did) fillintheblank”.
Once you start listening to this instinct, turn it out toward others and see if it helps them. Couch it in terms of “I have a feeling that you _____________…” to make it more palatable to them. Watch what happens.
As always write all this down in your notebooks. What your feeling was, what your question was, and what happened (or didn’t happen).
Whatever you do, don’t start feeling silly because you obeyed the feeling and nothing happened. I had a really powerful sick feeling in my stomach one day when my wife was going to go to a store on a cold February day, and I advised her against going. She delayed a few hours and went anyhow, but nothing happened. I started to feel silly, until I turned on the TV to watch the news, and saw that there had been a terrible accident on the route my wife would have taken, at about the same time she would have been there had she left on schedule. Everyone was dead in the accident.
So just because you knew that something was going to happen, and it didn’t because you listened to that voice, don’t get discouraged. That is what it is there for. To protect you and your loved ones. By listening to that voice, you changed the future, so don’t be surprised when nothing comes of listening. And don’t be surprised when something really bad happens when you ignore that voice.
Message: Lesson 6 part 3: Symbols
Author: Teacher – Daven Iceni,
Date: Aug 12, 2000 13:33
|Okay, last part to the Divination lesson. In this segment we will explore other forms of divination, mainly Tarot cards, Dream interpretation, and some of the other main forms.
But first, one thing ALL forms of divination have in common are that it is the interpretation of symbols. And one symbol for one person may not mean the same thing to another person.
So, here is where your inner voice comes in again to your rescue.
Symbols are personal. A dog to me may not mean the same thing to you, but it does have a representation to you. And it is a matter of finding out just what the symbol means and using that in your interpretation of the divinatory spread.
For instance, my wife and I have had a long debate on the meaning of two cards in the Tarot deck. It is the eight of Pentacles and the three of pentacles.
One means the master craftsman who has patience and knowledge in his craft, and the other means the apprentice in that same craft who is just learning. Every deck I have seen puts the master with the three, and the apprentice with the eight. This is how I read the cards and the interpretation I give them, but my wife reverses those two cards, associating the three with the apprentice and the eight with the master.
Now, her readings are just as accurate with that reversal as mine are (and in fact, she taught me everything I know about the Tarot) because, as I said, it is the interpretation of the symbols that is important. If, in a reading, she has to have the Master of a Trade show up, the eight of Pentacles appears in the proper position and she interoperates it correctly. Because the cards “know” which card is needed at one time or another.
So, while the books and guides are good for a starting place for interpretation of the symbols in divination, you are ultimately the only one who can decide which symbol means what in your readings.
Another part of the divination is this: You will be using energy to arrange the cards in the order they need to appear. Literally. When you take a deck of tarot cards in your hands and shuffle them for a client, you are arranging them in the order you need to see them in. It is not conscious, but it happens. It’s even better if you are open to the client and to the Spirit or Gods or whatever you call them. And this process happens no matter what system you use. Be it Tarot, Runestones, I-Ching, or anything else. The symbols you need to see to figure out just what is going on WILL appear, in the order you need to see them in to give an accurate reading, but there may be a slight variation in them.
For instance, there are many of the same symbols repeated throughout the tarot, some more strong than others, or with a different “spin” on the message they are carrying. For example the “mother” theme.
In my deck, there are 7 different cards that have the mother theme as the primary theme in it, with differing variations on it. The Queen of Cups, is the mother who nurtures the spiritual life of her children, the Queen of Pentacles is the Earth mother, the fertile one, the Queen of Wands is the kind gentle mother, the Queen of Swords is the mother defender, the Empress is the Mother of all, the Goddess like Hera, and the High Priestess is the Spiritual Mother, like Hecate.
All of these archetypes are part of a woman and a mother, but there are differing shades to them. However, if you see the Queen of Wands as the earth mother, the fertile one, then she will show up in the spread anytime that you need that interpretation in the tarot reading.
The books and guides out there are good for a starting point, and they give brief “sound bites” as to what the card means, but eventually you will know without looking what the card means. Simply by listening to that gut instinct when you do a spread.
So, meditation on the symbols in a reading, no matter what the type of tool you use is really important to define the symbols for yourself.
You will see on the shelves of bookstores many books dealing with “universal symbols” and different archetypes and how to read ___________ and they are good for giving you a feeling for what kinds of interpretations are out there, but ultimately the symbol has only the meaning that you give it. Deciding that a spider means patience is one use of the symbol, and one that I have seen before, but also seeing the spider as a protector is okay, and I have seen that one too.
I would suggest that you do some research in Joseph Campbell for universal themes and archetypes. Then with your new deck of tarot cards study each carefully, read the book that comes with it, and decide what the card means to you. Most times it will mean exactly what the book says, but other times it will be saying something completely different to you. Because, remember, these are made by artists and they are using their symbols in the making of these cards.
Some people even go as far as to make their own decks, and a more powerful thing there is not, for them. Using another’s deck is nearly impossible, due to the fact that the deck itself has been absorbing their energy.
Let me explain that: When you get a new deck, it is recommended that you sleep with it under your pillow, keep it near at hand, look at them a lot, hold them and simply use them a lot. This has two purposes, one to familiarize yourself with the cards, and to allow the cards to become charged with your bioenergy. Once it attunes itself to you, when your connection to the IS says you need to see THIS symbol, that card will almost literally come jumping out of the deck to tell you to look at it.
However, if I used your deck, attuned to your symbols, and my connection to the IS says I need to see THIS symbol, then your card’s symbol will come up, and if my interpretation is not the same as yours, I may misinterpreted it. Plus, you will get “contamination” from my energy, throwing off your symbol’s appearance. If I hate dogs, and you do not, 99 times out of 100, you will get a dog for a protector and friend, but that last time, you will get a dog as an enemy and a beast, and will mis-read it as a protector.
This symbol interpretation is the most important part of divination, since divination is the language of symbols. I use the Tarot as an example, because I am most familiar with it, but this basic concept can be applied to everything from Astrology down to tea-leaves.
Runes are another means of using symbols to find the answers to questions. And it is an entirely symbolic language. Here’s an example.
These are a newer form of divination based on Robert Blum’s work in the mid-50’s. Each of these symbols have a definitive meaning, and only through study and meditation can one determine what the meaning is. There is even another symbol that is not up there, called Wyrd, or the blank rune meaning the IS or God or the Magick. It can be a confusing system, but without great familiarity with the system, one can become lost really quickly.
Tea leaves are the simplest form of divination, and once again it is a subjective interpretation based on the pictures you see. The same for fire and crystal gazing. So too is the cloud gazing, and just about every other form of divination out there.
So, I’m not going to give an assignment on this segment, but I will say that if you decide to get a tarot deck, go and buy a few general books on tarot card reading and study them. It would be best if you could get the big book that goes with your particular deck, and the people who sell the tarot deck should know what you are talking about. LOL If not, then the bookstore or library should have some suggestions.
Start with Tarot. In my opinion it is the easiest to learn, and it will be a good default for any other kind of divination that you want to study later.
Questions, comments, suggestions? It’s the Q&A time now, so don’t be shy.
Message: not to get distracted
Author: beginner – Danann Durotriges
Date: Aug 22, 2000 04:18
|Daven, I’ve been following this string and practicing believing my intuition. A lot of what I have read here is something that I have always felt and followed, in fact it was such a “message” as you mentioned below that led me here.
Something that keeps happening though is that I get easily distracted, when reading references, for example when reading about mythology, or gods and goddesses of other ancient religions – off I go to find out more about that culture.
This is relevant here because I know I would be influenced by my Ancient Egyptian studies when reading a tarot with Egyptian symbols.
Do you think this is a good thing, or do you recommend I concentrate solely in this area since, I believe, my message told me to look here for the way to live my life?
I’m in a quandary and need some guidance.
Message: If I may…..
Author: – Draconis CuChulainn
Date: Aug 22, 2000 11:47
|As a Druid, I feel the urge to learn all I can. I look up references, seek other sources of information. Because, according to Sturgeon, everything written is 95% crap.
Message: Stepping up to the podium again….
Author: Teacher – Daven Iceni
Date: Aug 22, 2000 23:10
|Okay, as to using colors, not everyone uses the default colors of AS, so changing them could result in a page being unreadable by others, but I will look into a “book” format for other posts. If you want a preview, look at my Journal. (Which are my WebPages at AS, you can get to them from my domus)
Using another symbol for what you are doing? Sounds okay to me. I see nothing wrong with using one culture’s symbol if it means something to you, as opposed to the “correct culture’s” symbol that means nothing.
For instance, in my personal Circles, I use the Archangels in place of the Elementals or the Elemental Lords, because they mean something to you.
So long as you can do it in the genre you are working in (such as using the elementals in my example) the taking a shortcut and using symbols that mean something to you is not a bad thing when doing a major reading or working where you have to be IN the ceremony.
So, I guess I’m saying that you should study BOTH ways of doing things, and choose the one with the most meaning for you to use all the time. So long as you know the “proper” way of doing it, then it’s no one else’s business but yours why you do it that way.
Or, as Nike says, “Just DO it!” ROFL
Stars light your path.